Integrated circuit (microchip) embedded e.g. in passports, ID cards and biometric residence permits, for the storage and processing of data. The chip, not visible in most documents , communicates with the card reader via electromagnetic waves (Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)). To start the transmission, proximity to the reader is required. Biometric or e-passports incorporate a contactless (or proximity) chip. These are incorporated into the travel document in a variety of ways. The chip may (as illustrated) be embedded within a thick transparent laminate, within the document cover, or within a special polycarbonate page. To maintain data security, basic access control is used - the contactless chip can be read by the relevant reader only once it has been unlocked by a validated PIN code, as well as extended access control (terminal authentication) - within the document’s MRZ (Machine Readable Zone); data exchange is protected by means of an encoded PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) protocol.
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